On Anomaly Types and Anomaly Detection.

Anomaly detection, especially their early detection, is a crucial capability when it comes to operating large complex systems, processes or critical infrastructures. Because it is difficult to make highly complex systems resilient in the face of a multitude of potential often unknown hazards, it is desirable to be able to identify anomalies, malfunctions and attacks…

Beyond Resilience

Resilience is a fancy, fashionable à la mode word. Being able to withstand the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune is something everyone wants. The ability to recover quickly, to spring back into the original shape is certainly desireable in any field. Nature builds resilient things. Engineers are sometimes able to create resilient designs. This…

On Theories, Complexity and Decision Making

In highly complex contexts, or when one runs out of arguments in a debate, it is customary to resort to elaborate conspiratory theories. Theories are constructed based on a set of data points. When many data points are available, one can construct many theories. The problem is that all these theories will agree in the…

The Sovereign Debt Iceberg

The irrational covid-19-induced destruction of our economy has exacerbated the north-south divisions in Europe and sparked debates on issues such as austerity, recovery funds, financial stability and, of course, national debts. But when speaking of national debts, economists consistently ignore, or forget, the issue of implicit debt and focus exclusively on explicit debt. We propose…